Acoustic Publications

Our Published Papers

A Planning Condition for Wind Turbines

Dick Bowdler et al

Acoustics Bulletin

The UK Institute of Acoustics Monthly Bulletin contains an article setting out this proposed wording for a planning condition on noise for wind farms or individual wind turbines. Whilst local authorities and developers have waited for a planning condition that could be applied to newly consented wind farms, or to those already consented but with a suspensive condition, the report “Wind Turbine AM Review” (WTAMR) by WSP/Parsons Brinckerhoff for DECC arguably did not provide that. In addition there have been a number of comments on WTAMR that we consider should be addressed. The introductory sections and the conditions text represent the broad consensus view of those whose names appear below, following a period of discussion, compromise and agreement. This approach is proposed based on the current state of understanding, but may be subject to modification in light of new research and further robust information.

Posted 2017 Download

What Would an Alternative to ETSU-R-97 Look Like?

McKenzie A and Bullmore A

Acoustics 2015

ETSU-R-97 is a document that has remained unchanged since it was first published nearly two decades ago, despite suffering from heavy critisism over those years. McKenzie and Bullmore propose what an alternative procudure to the assessment and rating of wind farm noise in the UK might be, if ETSU-R-97 were to be superceded.

Posted 2015 Download

Application of AM Metrics - Case Studies

Levet T

Acoustics 2015

This paper gives some examples of a potential amplitude modulation (AM) assessment using the three metrics proposed in the IOA AM discussion document. Results are presented, discussing the analysis of noise measurements undertaken at a residential receptor location near a wind turbine site where operational and background noise periods were measured. Some of the issues involved are discussed. The objective of these metrics is a consistent quantification of the modulating character of the wind turbine related component of the noise, which can be implemented in a practical way.

Posted 2015 Download

Wind Turbine Noise Measurements - How are results influenced by different methods of deriving wind speed?

Broneske S

Internoise 2014

With the increasing number of operational wind farms/turbines, the requirement for noise measurements required to demonstrate compliance with planning conditions is increasing as well. The British ETSU-R-97 noise limits are often set relative to measured or standardised 10 m height wind speeds and therefore the assessment of noise from wind turbines requires simultaneous noise and wind speed/direction measurements. For financial reasons, smaller and single turbine sites are often not equipped with a meteorological mast. If no independent hub height wind measurements are available, wind speed is either taken from nacelle anemometers or derived from power measurements combined with the power curve for the respective wind turbine type. Noise measurements referenced to nacelle anemometer data will be compared with the same measurements but correlated with derived power curve wind speed, and measured wind data from separate met mast or other remote sensing devices. The influence of incorrect filtering of wind data for shadow effects (mast and/or nearby wind turbines) on the noise assessment may be presented, depending on how much time is available. The advantages and disadvantages of the various methods will be discussed.

Posted 2014 Download